Parameters of air pollutants resulting from the combustion furnace of the steam boiler are:
1. Sulfur Dioxide
Air pollution by sulfur oxides is mainly caused by two components which in the form gas and colorless, namely sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3). Both are called as sulfur oxides (SOx). Sulfur dioxide has a characteristic sharp odor and not flammable in the air while triode is not reactive component.
The problem posed by the pollutants created by humans are in terms of its distribution is uneven, so concentrated in certain regions. Pollution from natural sources is usually more spread out evenly. Source of SOx pollution can be found in the burning of fuels in industry such as fuel coal. SOx pollution will give bad impacts on humans and animals and also damage plants if occurs at levels of 0.5 ppm. The primary effect of SOx pollutants on humans is respiratory system irritation. To suppress the emission of SOx gases, a unit of FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurization) is always used.
2. Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide is a compound that has characteristic such as odorless, tasteless, and at normal air temperature will form colorless gas. CO compounds have the potential to be dangerous because the toxins are capable to forming strong bonds with blood pigment.
Artificial sources of CO include motor vehicles, especially those that use gasoline, while the source does not move like the burning of coal, oil from industrial and domestic waste burning.
The impact of CO varies depending on a person's health status; the influence of high CO levels is against central nervous system. To suppress the emission of CO, the unit of scrubber is used in the chimney or stack.
3. Nitrogen Dioxide
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of nitrogen contained in the atmosphere consists of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitrogen monoxide is colorless and odorless gas while nitrogen dioxide is reddish brown and pungent.
The largest source of NOx pollution is from human activities in urban and industrial activities. The impact of NOx pollution is as toxic material so will be danger for human’s lung. To suppress the emission of NOx is steam boiler should use fuel with low content of NOx.
4. Dust Particle
The combustion product especially for dust can be divided into two types namely bottom ash and fly ash. Effect of liquid or solid form of dust particulate in the air depends on its size. The size of dust particulates are harmful to health has range generally between 0.1 microns to 10 microns. To suppress this emission, steam boiler can be equipped with multi cyclone, bag house or Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP).