The main factor to calculate and design heat exchanger is heat transfer problem. If amount of heat which is released is equal to Q with regulations of time, then cold fluid will receive heat as Q with equation:

Q = U . A . ΔTm

Where:

Q = released / received heat

U = overall heat transfer coefficient

A = area of heat transfer

ΔTm = Difference in average temperature

Before determining surface area of heat (A), then the value of LMTD Heat Exchanger (Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference) should be first determined. This is based on the difference in inlet temperature of fluid and outlet temperature of heat.

For different parallel flow direction of fluid, in which:

ΔTmax = ( T1 – t1 ) : ΔTmin = ( T2 – t2 )

For opposite luid flow, then:

ΔTmax = ( T1 – t2 ) : ΔTmin = ( T2 – t1 )

Where:

LMTD = Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

T1 = temperature of fluid into shell

T2 = temperature of fluid out of shell

t1 = temperature of fluid into tube

t2 = temperature fluid out of tube

In design heat exchanger, actual difference in average temperature should be calculated by using correction factor (Ft). Amount of actual difference in average temperature (ΔTm) is:

ΔTm = Ft × LMTD

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